Electrodes are available in many sizes and shapes to fit most needs in industry. To choose many considerations come to mind. The first decision would be full size vs cap electrode. Are you a job shop or highly automated usually decides this.
All spot welding electrodes mushroom during use and when this happens the resultant weld eventually is unacceptable. Before this happens most operations either dress or change the electrode to get the face back to original operating conditions.
Back up electrodes are used for projection welding electrodes. They are normally used on the lower side and are flat faced. There is no need for a defined weld face since the projection concentrates the weld current and heat into a desired spot for nugget creation.
Some resistance welding applications call out forces above the limits of tapered electrodes. The RWMA Manual Fig 18.3 shows force vs taper. It shows that above 2400 Lbs force tapers are not viable. Above this force specially designed High Pressure/High Force Electrodes must be used. These electrodes can be straight shanks, threaded or flanged electrodes. They are available from several manufacturers. Contact your electrode supplier for assistance.
Reference: RWMA Resistance Welding Manual 4th Edition
Force is used for two main reasons. One is to contain the weld nugget and prevent expulsion and the other is to strengthen the weld by forging the solidifying weld nugget. It is easy to see that if welding force is changed these actions will be affected to some degree. Expulsion could increase or decrease and the resultant weld strength could also increase or decrease.
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