# Projection Welding

## How do you measure a projection weld nugget and develop a weld schedule?

We will talk about the weld schedule first. There is no formula for a weld schedule. If you know a schedule for a similar single projection weld it can be applied to your application. If you are welding several projections of the same size and they are spaced modestly multiply the current and force by the number of projections. Current and time stays the same.

Ref: Blog article:

HOW DO YOU DEVELOP A PROJECTION WELDING SCHEDULE?

If a weld schedule is not available then references are available and are listed in the above article. Additionally the references listed below have weld schedules for projection and spot welding various thicknesses of materials.

A spot weld schedule can be used as a starting point. The multiplier noted in the above article will apply applies here.

Remember always start your set up with the power on the cold side to avoid any major expulsion. Then adjust the power up slowly.
When you have achieved a weld nugget it is measured just as in spot welding:

WHAT IS THE FORMULA FOR CALCULATING A WELD NUGGET?

Measure the nugget in two directions at 90 deg apart. Average the two values and you have the answer.

WELD NUGGET CALCULATION

Reference: AWS C1.1 Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding
RWMA Resistance Welding Manual 4th Edition
Tuffaloy Product Inc. Catalog
CMW Inc. Resistance Welding Products Catalog

## Need help developing a weld schedue nut welding to stainless steel using an MFDC welder

Nut welding is performed every day to bare steel, galvanized, stainless and other materials.. Basic data is available to give one starting points to begin. Published data for MFDC is not readily available but will be similar.  Welds will happen in in much shorter times equal faster. Start at lower weld times and work up is the rule for all new set ups.

There is another article in this blog which describes the many variables to consider for a proper weld schedule to nut weld stainless steel. Start with this and you will be guided to other references which can help you develop a good process.

HOW DO YOU DEVELOP A PROCESS TO PROJECTION WELD STAINLESS STEEL?

THREE PROJECTION WELD NUT

Reference: AWS C1.1 Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding
AWS J1.3 Specification for Materials Used In Resistance Welding Electrodes and Tooling
AWS J1.2 Guide to Installation and Maintenance of Resistance Welding Machines
Photos courtesy of T.J. Snow Co. and Tuffaloy Products Inc.

## Why do projection nuts rust after one day of welding?

After projection welding the nut surface might be damaged and coated with weld residue of unknown chemistry. This coating can act as a sponge and hold humidity and actually contain iron, copper and brass and many other chemical components. Some of these can be targets for rust. Bare metal may have been created during the welding process which is also a target for rust formation in the presence of humidity.

A brief search on the web found that steel can begin to rust within a few hours if in a humid environment. The amount of humidity and bareness of the steel determines the speed that this occurs. Some nuts are coated to retard corrosion. Welding may partially affect this coating. Iron will rust even faster than steel.

To prevent rust reduce the moisture and humidity. Rust preventive coated nuts may reduce rust occurrence.

ASSORTED WELD NUT

References: RWMA - RWMA Resistance Welding Manual 4th Edition

## Is there a wrong way to hold a part for projection welding?

This is an interesting question. It brings up part placement, accuracy, consistency and safety. The part needs to be loaded accurately each time and at the same time the operator must be safe. Safety will be briefly discussed here. There are a few general items that can be considered:

• Normally operators have eye protection and gloves for protection from flash or burrs on the metal components that may be handled
• Tooling or fixtures are common which accept the part components and hold them in the proper position and orientation prior to welding
• Auto loaded or manual loaded, the parts must be positioned to ensure that the electrode force is perpendicular to the projections. The goal is even perpendicular force distribution. If the electrode is at an angle skidding may occur and weld strength may be compromised along with part distortion.
• Robotic systems frequently are used for part placement
• In manual loading, safety systems are employed to ensure that the operator is clear before the welder can be initiated.
• Robotic or Automatic systems are frequently enclosed in caged areas for safety

From a resistance welding point of view the part must be held or positioned in the proper orientation and alignment to meet the part specification. It must stay that way until the electrodes have closed on the part. Fixtures or tooling frequently perform this function.

PIN LOCATING 4 PROJECTIONS

In some applications part desing fullfils this need

Parts are generally fixtured and loaded manually or with auto loading systems. This will allow for hands to be out of the weld area before weld activation. In manufacturing, safety systems are frequently employed to ensure hands have been removed before the weld cycle will activate.

Local machine manufacturers and suppliers will be familiar with the local regulations and available safety equipment for fixturing and personal protection.

Safety implementation is beyond the scope of this blog.

Reference: RWMA - Resistance Welding Manual 4th Edition

## When should projection weldiing electrodes be dressed?

By the nature of the process, projection welding electrodes deliver the pressure and current through a large flat surface area as compare to spot welding.

This results in greatly reduced surface wear on the face of the projection welding electrodes. Their life is generally much longer and require minimal maintenance. The wear on the face of the projection welding electrode may have little if any affect upon the weld quality. It may only affect the cosmetic appearance on the part surface it contacts. In many cases this is not an issue.

As stated projection welding electrodes can run a long time without dressing.
If projection electrode wear does impact weld quality it is time to dress. If the part begins to stick to the electrode because of cracks or roughness, it is time to dress. Watch your weld quality but expect some other problem to crop up and influence your need to dress the projection weld electrode.

When dressing is desired for whatever reason be it part surface, sticking or convenience a light resurfacing will usually suffice. This can be on the machine or removed and done in a machine shop.
See another article in this blog:

CAN PROJECTION WELDING ELECTRODES BE DRESSED EASILY?

There is no canned number or welds at which this will occur. It should be more than spot welding. After a few production cycles you will learn what your normal process issues are and know what to expect and when. A routine will be easy set up and maintain for your process.

References: RWMA – Resistance Welding Manual 4th Edition

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